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Impact of weak modulated signals on neurons

In clinical practice of Transcranial Magnetic Therapy (TMS), a very strong modulated signals is used, however research indicates that harmonics of the base resonance of the low alpha brainwave, a weak field signal is as  effective if not more so than the strong signals used in clinical application. This research supports the application of the Flow Therapy device which is a personal low output TMS device.

 

see Electric Double Layer in wikipedia

see Schumann resonances in wikipedia

A number of researchers and scientific publications investigated an impact of modulated EM, magnetic fields or even vibrations [1][2], see e.g. [3-10]. In 1957, German physicist Dr W. O. Schumann calculated the Earth/Ionosphere cavity resonance frequencies (which were later named after him). He fixed the most predominant standing wave at about 7.83 Hz. It has been found that the dominant brainwave rhythm of all mammals in alpha (resting) state is at a frequency of 7.83 Hz.  In fact, it predominates in the hippocampus (found in the brain), which is part of the limbic system involved with emotional and memory aspects of behaviour.  Suzanne Bawin, Leonard Kaczmarek and Ross Adey [11] at the University of California found that exposing brain tissue to weak VHF radio signals modulated at 16Hz released calcium ions bound to the surfaces of its cells. Carl Blackman at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in North Carolina followed this up with a whole series of experiments testing different field‐strengths and frequencies [12] and came to the surprising conclusion that weak fields were often more effective than strong ones. In [13] the influence of very weak low frequency magnetic fields between 7 and 72 Hz and amplitudes between 13 and 114 μT on the transport of Ca2+ channel protein in the cell membrane was investigated. Several frequencies such as 31.1 Hz and 24 Hz are indicated. Several old results regarding various metabolic disorders in plants and animals can be found in [10]. Other works investigated impact of dedicated frequencies of radio-wave radiation of mm-frequency range (30-300 GHz) on living organisms. For example, radiation intensity within the limits of 0.1-1.0 mW/cm2 reveals bio-informative reaction.

Impact of ion transfer under modulated fields is closely related to electric double-layers around mesoscopic charged particles. Such double-layers are ubiquitous in many physical, geophysical, chemical and biological systems, including complex fluids, clay soils, polyelectrolytes (e.g. DNA) or cell membranes [14]. For biological materials, such charges are mainly associated with electrical double layers occurring at membrane surfaces or around solvated macromolecules, or with polar molecules which (by definition) possess a permanent electric dipole moment [15]. A number of publications, e.g. [16], [17] deal with ion transfer in biological tissues, mostly cell membrane, under changed condition in electrical double layer. In [18] [19] the application of an external electric field for induction of a critical electrical potential across the cell membrane is investigated. It is shown that it can lead to rapid electrical breakdown and local structural changes of the cell membrane. The work [20] deals with more deep issues – the stability of colloidal dispersions and the formation of bilayer membranes. The approach and fusion of biological cells, (conception, infection, recognition), the tertiary conformation of proteins, and the transport of ions and other molecules across cell membranes, are all fundamental life processes involving the electric double layer at surfaces in an aqueous environment. The work [21] treats properties of electric double layer interactions in bacterial adhesion to surfaces. A reappraisal of cell signalling, taking into account the protein interactions with the membrane electrostatic profile, suggests that an electrical dimension is deeply involved in this fundamental aspect of cell biology [22].

References

[1] Robert K Adair, Vibrational resonances in biological systems at microwave frequencies. PMCID: PMC1301920, Biophys J. 2002 March; 82(3): 1147–1152.(link to journal) (link to .pdf paper)

[2] Eugene Ackerman, Mechanical Resonances of Biological Cells, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Volume 26, Issue 1, pp. 141-141 (1954) (link to journal) (link to .pdf paper)

[3] Cherry, N.J., Schumann Resonances, a plausible biophysical mechanism for the human health effects of Solar/Geomagnetic Activity, Natural Hazards 26(3), p 279-331, 2002 (link to .pdf paper) (link to journal)

[4] Cherry, N.J., Human intelligence: The brain, an electromagnetic system synchronised by the Schumann Resonance signal, Medical Hypotheses 60(60):843-4, 2003 (link to .pdf paper) (link to journal)

[5] Cherry,N.J., Cell phone radiation poses a serious biological and health risk, http://www.drscheiner-muenchen.de/Cherryeng.htm

[6] König, H.L.,  Bioinformation – Electrophysical Aspects. In: Electromagnetic Bioinformation, Popp, F.A., Becker,G., König, H.L.Peschka,W.,(eds.) Urban und Schwarzenberg,  p 25, 1979 (link to the google books)

[7] Ludwig,W ., `Informative Medizin’,  VGM Verlag fuer Ganzheitsmedizin, Essen, 1999 (link to the google books)

[8] Schumann, W.O., Ueber die strahlungslosen Eigenschwingungen einer leitenden Kugel, die von einer Luftschicht und einer Ionosphaerenhuelle umgeben ist, Z.Naturforsch. 7a, 149, 1952

[9] Schumann W.O., König, H.,  Ueber die Beobachtung von Atmospherics bei geringsten Frequenzen, Naturwissenschaften, 41, 183, 1954 (link to jurnal)

[10] G. Lakhovsky: The Secret of Life: Electricity, Radiation and Your Body, Noontide Press, Costa Mesa, 1992, 214 p.(link to the google books)

[11] Bawin SM, Kaczmarek KL, Adey WR, Effects of modulated VHF fields on the central nervous system. Ann. N.Y. Acad Sci 247: 74‐81, 1975 (link to journal) (link to .pdf paper)

[12] Blackman CF, Benane SG, Kinney LS, House DE, Joines WT,  ‘Effects of ELF fields on calcium‐ion efflux from brain tissue in vitro’. Radiat. Res. 92: 510‐520, 1982 (link to journal)

[13] Bauréus Koch, C.L.M. and Sommarin, M. and Persson, B.R.R. and Salford, L.G. and Eberhardt, J.L., Interaction between weak low frequency magnetic fields and cell membranes, Bioelectromagnetics, 24, 6, p395–402, 2003 (link to journal)

[14] J.-P. Hansen, H. Lowen, Effective interactions between electric double-layers, arXiv:cond-mat/0002295, 2000 (link to .pdf paper) (link to journal)

[15] Ronald Pethig’r and Douglas B KellS, The passive electrical properties of biological systems:their significance in physiology, biophysics and biotechnology, Phys. Med. Biol., 1987, Vol. 32, No 8, 933-970. (link to .pdf paper) (link to journal)

[16] W. Kuang, S. O. Nelson, Low-Frequency Dielectric Properties Of Biological Tissues: A Review with Some New Insights, VOL. 41(1):173-184, Transactions of the ASAE,  American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 1998 (link to .pdf paper)

[17] J. Koryta, Electrochemical polarization phenomena at the interface of two immiscible electrolyte solutions—II. Progress since 1978, Electrochimica Acta, Volume 29, Issue 4, April 1984, Pages 445-452, ISSN 0013-4686, 10.1016/0013-4686(84)87092-9. (link to journal)

[18] S. Toepfl, V. Heinz, D. Knorr, High intensity pulsed electric fields applied for food preservation, Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, Volume 46, Issue 6, June 2007, Pages 537-546, ISSN 0255-2701, 10.1016/j.cep.2006.07.011. (link to journal) (link to .pdf paper)

[19] Humberto Vega-Mercado, Olga Martín-Belloso, Bai-Lin Qin, Fu Jung Chang, M. Marcela Góngora-Nieto, Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cánovas, Barry G. Swanson, Non-thermal food preservation: Pulsed electric fields, Trends in Food Science & Technology, Volume 8, Issue 5, May 1997, Pages 151-157, ISSN 0924-2244, 10.1016/S0924-2244(97)01016-9. (link to journal)

[20] Phil Attard, Electrolytes and the Electric Double Layer, Adv. Chem. Phys. 92, 1-159, 1996 (link to .pdf paper) (link to journal)

[21] Albert T. Poortinga, Rolf Bos, Willem Norde, Henk J. Busscher, Electric double layer interactions in bacterial adhesion to surfaces, Surface Science Reports, Volume 47, Issue 1, June 2002, Pages 1-32, ISSN 0167-5729, 10.1016/S0167-5729(02)00032-8. (link to journal) (link to .pdf paper)

[22] Olivotto, Massimo, Arcangeli, Annarosa, Carlà, Marcello, Wanke, Enzo, Electric fields at the plasma membrane level: A neglected element in the mechanisms of cell signaling, Bioessays, 18, 6, 495-504, 10.1002/bies.950180612, 1996 (link to journal)

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